- Clinical signs: open-mouthed breathing, exaggerated respiratory effort, tail bobbing, change or loss of voice or song, wheezing.
- Etiology includes the following: Primary respiratory diseases such as bacterial, fungal, parasitic, chlamydial, and mycoplasmal infections; toxins, foreign bodies, trauma, neoplasia; Extrarespiratory diseases such as organomegaly (thyroid, hepatic, renal, gonadal), oral masses, coelomic fluid, cardiovascular disease, neoplasia.
- Diagnosis includes the following: Thorough history and observation of patient and; Minimum database which includes CBC, Chemistry panel, Radiographs, and Abdominocentesis (if fluid is present)
- Therapy is based on the diagnosis; it may include oxygen therapy (oxygen case, intubation of air sacs) and fluid and nutritional support.
Reference: "Manual of Avian Medicine" by Glenn H. Olsen and Susan E. Orosz